THE GOSPEL IN SCRIPTURE

 

Introductory Scriptures

 

Romans 1-4

1 Corinthians 15

Acts 2:14-41

Acts 3:11-26

Key Questions

  1. Who made us, and to whom are we accountable?

  2. What is our problem?  Are we in trouble and why?

  3. What is God's solution to that problem?  How has he acted to save us from it?

  4. How do I - myself, right here, right now - how do I come to be included in that salvation?  What makes this good news for me and not just for someone else?

Simplified Doctrines

 

These simplified doctrines are taken from 'The Complete Topical Guide to the Bible', by Martin Hugh Manser (Editor), Alister McGrath (Editor), J. Packer (Editor), Donald Wiseman (Editor).  This material is being used in accord with the 'fair dealing' provision of the Canadian Copyright Act for the purpose of private study.  Individuals who engage this material are encouraged to purchase the primary source via the link provided.

 

God

The Creator and Redeemer of the world, who reveals himself in Scripture and in Jesus Christ, and who is loved, worshiped and adored by believers. Scripture stresses the personal nature of God, and also his total reliability and trustworthiness.  God is the Father of Jesus Christ and of all believers (1015).​​

 

Sovereign Creator

The fact that God is free and able to do all that he wills; that he reigns over all creation and that his will is the final cause of all things.  This is often expressed in the language of kingship (1130).

 

The created order, established as a sovereign decision on the part of God.  The creation is dependent upon and under the authority of its Creator.  Scripture affirms the role of both Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit in the work of creation (4005).

 

Holy & Righteous

The moral excellence of God that unifies his attributes and is expressed through his actions, setting him apart from all others.  Believers are called to be holy as God is holy (1065).

 

An aspect of God's nature which expresses his unique moral perfection and his readiness to save sinners.  It is made known especially through the gospel of Jesus Christ (1125).

 

Justice & Wrath

The moral righteousness of God is revealed in his laws and expressed in his judicial acts.  God's commands and judgments meet perfect standards of justice, and his apportioning of punishments and rewards is also perfectly just.  God's justice is impartial.  Special praise is his for vindicating the penitent and the needy who have no human champions.  Ultimately, all God's ways will be seen as just and equitable (1075).

 

The punitive and vindicatory reaction, legitimate and controlled, yet awesomely empathetic, of God the righteous judge to unrighteousness in his human creatures.  Up to the present, the expression of God's anger and wrath has had the purpose of drawing sinners to repentance and conversion, but this will not be the case at the final judgment (1025).

 

Love

The deepest possible expression of God's character.  Though God loves all people, he is especially committed to sacrificial, loyal relationships with his people (1085).

 

Grace & Mercy

The qualities of God's character by which he shows himself compassionate, accepting, and generous to sinful human beings, shielding them from his wrath, forgiving them, and bestowing on them his righteousness so that they can live and grow in faith and obedience.  Grace and mercy are particularly expressed through God's covenant with his chosen people and through Jesus Christ's atoning death on the cross (1055).

 

Man

Human beings are the high point of God's creation.  They alone are created in his image.  As a result of sin they are alienated from God and from one another, and are unable by themselves to alter this situation.  The salvation of humanity rests totally upon the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ, received by grace through faith (5001).

 

Creature

Although the human race is the pinnacle of God's creative work, it shares the inherent limitations of the physical realm.  Human beings are nevertheless given responsibility to manage and steward the world (5002).

 

Sinner

As a result of the fall, human beings have become separated from God through sin, and are divided among themselves.  All are in a condition of spiritual blindness, slavery and death, and are incapable of saving themselves from this situation (5004).

 

Negative Disposition to God

Scripture identifies a range of negative attitudes toward God, which believers are encouraged to avoid (5764).

 

The Problem of Sin
Primarily a wrong relationship with God, which may express itself in wrong attitudes or actions toward God himself, other human beings, possessions or the environment.  Scripture stresses that this condition is deeply rooted in human nature, and that only God is able to break its penalty, power and presence (6010).

 

Nature of Sin
Scripture portrays sin in terms of wrongness before God in a variety of different ways, such as uncleanness, guilt or rebellion (6021).

 

Causes of Sin
Sin is the result of the fall, at which the creation rebels against God its creator (6022).

 

Universality of Sin
All human beings sin and are guilty in the sight of God on account of an inherently sinful disposition, which can be tracked back to Adam.  Acts of sin thus arise from a sinful human heart.  The basis of cleansing and cancellation of "original sin" is the atoning death of Jesus Christ (6023).

 

Effects of Sin
Sin effects every level of human existence, including the sinner's relationship with God, with other human beings and with the environment (6024).

 

God's Character and Sin
In his righteousness and holiness, God detests sin and its effects upon humanity.  In his mercy and grace, he makes available a means of atonement, by the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (6025).

 

God's Judgment on Sin
Sin comes under the judgment of God, in that it contradicts his nature and opposes his purposes (6026).

 

God's Remedy for Sin
Under the old covenant, sin was forgiven through sacrifice, prefiguring the atoning death of Jesus Christ, which brings forgiveness of sins under the new covenant (6027).

 

Atonement in the OT
Atonement for sins in the OT was through the shedding of blood (6027).

 

Atonement, Repentance, and Obedience
Sacrifices of atonement needed to be accompanied by repentance and a willingness to obey (6027).

 

The Death of Jesus
The death of Jesus Christ brings forgiveness for sin (6027).

 

God's Deliverance from Sin
The gospel reveals the purpose and power of God to deal with sin and all of its effects.  Scripture uses a range of images to express the comprehensiveness of salvation (6028).

 

Accepting Forgiveness of Sin
Sinners must respond to God's offer of forgiveness through faith in Jesus Christ", including conviction, faith, repentance, baptism, confession, restitution, and forgiveness of others (6029).

 

Avoidance of Sin
God calls his people to avoid sin, and through Jesus Christ gives them the inner power to be victorious over it (6030).

 

 

Bible Reference Guide to the Gospel

 

This Bible reference guide is compiled from 'The Complete Topical Guide to the Bible', by Martin Hugh Manser (Editor), Alister McGrath (Editor), J. Packer (Editor), Donald Wiseman (Editor).  This material is being used in accord with the 'fair dealing' provision of the Canadian Copyright Act for the purpose of private study.  Individuals who engage this material are encouraged to purchase the primary source via the link provided.

 

GodSovereign Creator

 

God is the creator.
Ne 9:6; Ge 1:1; Isa 45:7; 66:2; Eph 3:9; Rev 4:11
God's creative activity demonstrates his uniqueness: Ps 96:5; Isa 37:16; Jer 10:11
God's creative activity implies that he is good: 1 Ti 4:4; Ge 1:4, 31

 

God creates all things.
He creates the physical world: Isa 45:18; Ge 1:1-25
He creates the spiritual world: Ps 148:2-5; Ro 8:38-39; Col 1:16
The human race is the apex of God's creation: Ps 8:3-8; Ge 1:26-28; 5:1; 9:6; Ps 100:3; 139:13; Isa 42:5; Ac 17:26-28

 

God renews his creation through redemption.
Jn 3:17; 2 Co 5:17; Jn 1:12-13; Ro 4:17; 6:4; 8:19-23; Gal 6:15

 

God renews his creation of believing people.
2 Co 4:16; Col 3:10

 

God is free to do all he wills.
Ps 135:6; Ps 115:3; Isa 46:10; Da 4:35; Rom 9:19-21

 

God is able to do whatever he wills.
Lk 1:37; Job 42:2; Mt 19:26; Eph 3:20

 

God cannot be successfully opposed.
Job 42:2; 1 Sa 2:10; 2 Ch 20:6; Job 9:12; Ecc 7:13; Isa 43:13; 45:9-10; Ac 5:39

 

God rules and reigns.
He is king: Ps 29:10; 1 Ch 16:31; Ps 47:2; Is 6:5; 43:15; Jer 10:7, 10; Zec 14:9; 1 Tim 1:17; 6:15; Rev 15:3; 19:6
He is Lord of heaven and earth: Dt 4:39; Gen 24:3; Dt 10:14; Jos 2:11; 1 Ch 29:11; Ne 9:6; Ps 121:2; 134:3; Lk 10:21; Ac 17:24
His throne is a symbol of his sovereignty: Ex 17:16; Ps 45:6; 93:2; 123:1; Isa 6:1; Isa 66:1; Jer 49:38; La 5:19; Eze 1:26; Da 7:9; Mt 5:34; 19:28; Acts 7:49; Heb 1:8; 8:1; 12:2; Rev 4:2; 20:11

 

God's sovereignty extends over all things.
He is sovereign over creation: Rev 4:11; Ps 93:1; Isa 40:22; 41:18-19
He is sovereign over human life: 1 Ch 29:12; 2 Ch 25:8; Lk 1:51-53; Ac 18:21; Jas 4:15
He is sovereign over the minutest details of life: Mt 10:29-30 // Lk 12:6-7
He is sovereign in electing his people: Eph 1:11; Ro 8:29; 9:11, 18
He is sovereign in the life and salvation of his people: 1 Co 1:30; Jer 18:6; 1 Co 12:11; Php 2:13; Jas 1:18
He is sovereign over the sufferings of believers: Php 1:29; 1 Pe 3:17
He is sovereign over world history: Pr 21:1; Ex 9:16; Ps 22:28; Jer 18:7-10; Da 4:35

 

God is sovereign over all other gods and over demonic forces.
He is supreme over all gods: Ps 95:3; Ex 18:11; Dt 10:17; 1 Ch 16:26; Ps 96:5; Da 2:47; Col 1:16
Satan is defeated through God's sovereign purpose at work in Jesus Christ: Col 2:15; Jn 12:31; Ro 16:20; 2 Th 2:8; Heb 2:14; 2 Pe 2:4; 1 Jn 3:8; Jude 6; Rev 12:7-10

 

God, Holy & Righteous

 

God's nature is holy.
He is perfect: Dt 32:4; Isa 6:3; Rev 4:8; 2 Sa 22:31; Job 6:10; Ps 18:30; 22:3; 71:22; 78:41; Isa 41:14; 43:15; Hab 1:13; Jn 17:11; Rev 6:10
He is uniquely holy: 1 Sa 2:2; Ex 15:11; Ps 77:13; Isa 40:25; Rev 15:4

 

God's name is holy.
Eze 36:21-23; Lev 22:32; 1 Ch 16:35; 29:16; Ps 33:21; 97:12; Isa 57:15; Eze 39:25; Lk 1:49

 

God's holiness makes sin objectionable to him.
Hab 1:13; Jos 24:19-20; Jer 50:29

 

God's holiness necessitates dependence upon him for forgiveness.
Ps 51:1-17; Da 9:4-19; 1 Jn 1:9

 

God's nature is righteous.
Ps 119:137; Dt 32:4; Ps 48:10; 97:2; 119:142; 145:17; Isa 45:21; Jer 12:1; Jn 17:25
God's righteousness shows his sovereignty: Ps 71:19; Job 37:23; Ps 36:6; 97:6; Isa 5:16
God's righteousness is eternal: Ps 111:3; Ps 112:3, 9; 119:142, 160; Isa 51:8

 

God's actions are righteous.
Da 9:14; Jdg 5:11; 1 Sa 12:7; Jer 9:24; Rev 15:3
God's rule is righteous: Ps 9:8; 2; 2 Sa 23:3-4; Ps 96:13; 99:4; Jer 9:23-24
God's righteous acts are saving acts: Ps 65:5; Ps 40:10; 116:4-6; 129:4; Isa 41:10; 46:13; Da 9:16; Mic 6:5
God's righteousness shows his justice: Jer 11:20; Ge 18:25; Job 8:3; Ps 11:7; 50:6; 51:4; Pr 21:12; Ecc 3:17; 2 Ti 4:8
God's righteousness is seen in his judgements: Ps 7:11; 2 Ch 12:5-6; Ezr 9:15; Isa 10:22; 28:17; La 1:18; Mal 3:5; Ro 2:2, 5

 

God's laws show his righteousness.
Ps 19:8-9; Dt 4:8; Ps 33:4; 119:7, 144; Ro 1:32; 7:12; 8:4

 

God's righteousness contrasts with human unrighteousness.
Ro 3:5; Ex 9:27; Ne 9:33; Job 4:17; 9:2; Da 9:7; Ro 10:3

 

God's righteousness is revealed primarily in Jesus Christ.
Ro 3:21-22; Isa 11:2-5; Jer 23:6; Zec 9:9; Ac 3:14; Ro 10:4; 1 Co 1:30; 2 Pe 1:1; 1 Jn 2:1
God's righteousness is revealed in the gospel: Ro 1:17; Php 3:9
God gives his righteousness to believers: Ro 4:22-24; Ge 15:6; Job 33:26; Hos 10:12; Rom 3:22; 4:3-8; 5:17; 10:4; 2 Co 5:21

 

The Holy Spirit reveals God's righteousness.
Gal 5:5; Jn 16:8, 10; Rom 14:17

 

God, His Justice & Wrath

God's justice displays his righteousness.
It conforms to his moral law: Job 34:12; Dt 32:4; Ps 9:16; 11:7; Zep 3:5; Ro 2:2; 2 Ti 2:13; Rev 15:3
It is seen in his perfect will: Ps 99:4; Ps 40:8; Isa 53:10; Mt 6:10; 26:39 // Mk 14:36 // Lk 22:42; Heb 10:9-10
 

God acts with justice.
Ps 33:5-15; Ne 9:33
God's justice is exercised fairly and equitably: Ps 9:7-8; Ps 96:13; 98:9; 99:4; Gal 6:7-8; Gen 18:25; Nu 32:23; Ps 73:17; Lk 16:25; 18:7-8; Col 3:24-25
He judges people according to their deeds: Rev 20:12-13; Ex 34:6-7; Ps 62:12; Jer 17:10; Eze 18:20; Mt 16:27; Rev 22:12
He punishes wickedness: Eze 18:20; Ex 34:7; Dt 32:35; Isa 59:18; 66:24; Mt 25:41-46; Col 3:25; 2 Th 1:8-9
He rewards righteousness: Ps 58:11; Isa 62:11; Mt 5:12 // Lk 6:23; Mt 25:34-40, 46; Ro 2:7; 8:1-2; 2 Ti 4:8
 

God establishes justice.
He upholds the cause of the oppressed: Ps 103:6; Dt 10:18; Ps 140:12; 146:7-9; Isa 61:8; Lk 1:52-53
He vindicates those who have been wronged: 1 Sa 25:39; 1 Sa 24:15; Ps 135:14; Ro 12:19; Dt 32:35; 1 Pe 2:23
He is completely impartial: Job 34:18-19; Dt 10:17; 2 Ch 19:7; Ac 10:34-35; Eph 6:9
 

God's justice is satisfied by the work of Jesus Christ.
Rom 3:25-26; Isa 53:10-11; Heb 9:22; 1 Jn 1:9, 2:1-2
 

God's justice will be established in the reign of Jesus Christ.
Mt 25:31-33; Isa 9:6-7; Ac 17:31; Rev 19:11-16
Heaven and earth will rejoice when God's justice is established: Ps 96:10-13 // 1 Ch 16:30-33; Ps 98:4-9; Rev 15:3-4; 16:5-7; 19:1-2
 

The nature of God's anger. 
It is fearsome: 
Na 1:6; Jos 7:26; Eze 38:18
It is reluctant and short-lived: Ex 34:6; Isa 54:7-8; Ne 9:16-18
It is consistent with his righteous and merciful character: Ps 7:11; Hab 3:2
It fulfills God's purposes: Jer 23:20; Jer 30:24
 

The causes of God's anger.
Idolatry and unbelief: Nu 25:3; Ex 32:8-10; Dt 8:19; Jdg 2:10-14; 1 Ki 14:9; 16:32-33; 22:53; 2 Ki 23:19; 2 Ch 28:25; 34:25; Jer 8:19; 32:29; 44:3; Jn 3:36; Ro 1:18-23; 2:8
Disobedience and disloyalty: Jos 7:1; Dt 9:7; 2 Ki 22:13; 1 Ch 13:10; Ps 106:29; Jer 32:32; Zec 7:13; Eph 5:6
Ungodly living: 2 Ti 3:1-9; Jude 14-16
Pride, arrogance and hypocrisy: Mt 23:27-28; 2 Ch 32:25; Pr 3:34; 8:13; Isa 13:11; Hos 12:14; Mal 4:1
Complaints against, and opposition to, God's purposes: Nu 11:1; 14:27; 21:5
Injustice: Zec 7:9-12; 2 Ch 19:7; Jer 22:13; Eze 9:9; Mal 3:5; Mt 23:23
The rejection of God's servants: Heb 10:29-31; Dt 32:35-36; Ps 135:14; Ne 9:26; Zec 7:12; Mt 21:33-41; Ac 7:35-37


God reveals his anger.
In present times: Ro 1:18; Jer 10:10
On a future "day of wrath" which is anticipated: Rom 2:5; Isa 13:9, 13; Eze 7:19; Zep 1:15, 18; 2:2
 

The consequences of God's anger.
God allows those who reject righteousness to remain in their sin: Ro 1:18-32; 1 Ki 14:16; 2 Ch 12:5; Ne 9:28; Isa 54:7-8; Jer 7:27-29; 12:7-8
Punishment will be experienced by rebellious people: Dt 8:19; Isa 59:18; Jer 21:14; Mt 18:34-35; 25:28-30; Ex 12:12; Nu 32:13; Jos 7:25-26; Isa 13:9-13; Da 5:30; Ac 5:5, 10; 1 Ki 14:15; Jer 15:13-14; 25:7-11; La 2:1-9; Eze 38:19-21
God will be feared as his holiness and greatness are revealed: Isa 59:18-19; Eze 38:22-23
Ultimately God will purify and restore his people for service: Mal 3:2-4; Jer 15:19-21

 

God, His Love

 

God's nature is love.
1 Jn 4:8; 1 Jn 4:16
His love is perfectly expressed within the Trinity: Mk 1:10-11 // Mt 3:16-17 // Lk 3:21-22; Jn 5:20; 10:17; 14:23; Eph 1:6; Col 1:13
 

Characteristics of God's love.
It is eternal: Jer 31:3; Ps 103:17; 136:1-26; Isa 49:15-16; 54:8, 10
It is a covenant love: Dt 7:9; Ex 20:6 // Dt 5:10; Dt 7:12; 1 Ki 8:23 // 2 Ch 6:14; Ps 106:45; Da 9:4
It is lavish: Ex 34:6-7; Ne 9:17; Ps 103:8; Joel 2:13; Jnh 4:2; 1 Jn 3:1
It is holy and just: Ps 33:5; Ps 37:28; 99:4; Isa 61:8
 

Images of God's love.
God as father: Dt 1:31; Hos 11:1-4; Lk 15:11-32; Heb 12:6; Pr 3:12
God as a husband: Jer 31:32; Hos 2:14-20; Rev 21:2
 

God's loving actions.
The gift of God's Son is a unique act of love: 1 Jn 4:9-10; Jn 3:16; 15:13; Ro 5:7-8
God sets his love on the unlovely: Dt 7:7-8; Eze 16:1-14; Ro 5:8; Eph 2:4-5
God always acts in love toward believers: Ro 8:38-39; 2 Co 13:14; 2 Jn 3
 

God's love for his people.
Israel: Isa 43:4; Dt 10:15; 2 Ch 9:8; Mt 15:24; Ro 9:15-16; Ex 33:19; Ro 11:28
The church: Rev 1:5; Jn 16:27; 17:23
 

God's love for the world.
Dt 10:18; Jn 3:16-17; Ps 145:9, 17; Mt 5:45; Ac 14:17; 17:25
 

God's love for individuals.
2 Sa 12:24-25; Dt 33:12; 2 Sa 7:15 // 1 Ch 17:13; Isa 55:3; Ezr 7:28; Ne 13:26
 

God's love transforms human love.
Human love must respond to God's love: 1 Jn 4:19; Dt 6:5; 30:6; Eph 5:1; Col 3:12-14
Human love must be modeled on God's love: Mt 5:44-45; Hos 3:1; 1 Jn 2:15; 4:7-8, 11-12

 

God, His Grace & Mercy

 

God's grace and mercy are made known in Jesus Christ.
Jn 1:16-17
 

The abundance of God's grace and mercy.
Eph 2:4-8; 2 Sa 24:14 // 1 Ch 21:13; Ps 69:13; 84:11; 102:13; Ro 2:4; 5:17; 9:23; 1 Ti 1:14


God's grace and mercy are always unearned and unmerited.
Dt 7:7-8; 9:5-6; Eze 36:22; Da 9:18; Ro 9:16; Eph 1:6; 2:8-9; 3:8; Tit 3:5
 

God's grace and mercy are a source of blessing.
Ge 21:1-2; 33:11; 1 Sa 2:21
 

God's grace and mercy are expressed in the covenant relationship.
Jer 31:3; Dt 7:9, 12; Ne 9:17; Ps 6:4; Isa 55:3; La 3:22, 32
 

Salvation comes by grace. 
Tit 2:11; Mk 10:25-27; Ro 5:15; Eph 1:5-6; 2:8; 2 Ti 1:9-10
This is ultimately shown in the cross of Jesus Christ: Ro 3:24-25; Ro 5:8; Eph 1:7; Heb 2:9; 2 Pe 1:10-11
 

God's grace and mercy are offered to sinners.  
Punishment is withheld: Ezr 9:13; 2 Ki 13:22-23; Eze 20:15-17; Hos 11:8; Joel 2:13
Sin is forgiven: Mic 7:18; 1 Jn 1:9; Ps 32:5; Pr 28:13; Isa 55:7; Jer 3:12; 33:8; Da 9:9
Sinners prayers are heard: Ps 51:1; Lk 18:13-14; Ps 6:2-3; 123:3; Hab 3:2

 

Man, the Creature

 

The human race is an integral part of the physical creation.
The human race was created from the ground: Ge 2:7; Ge 3:17-19; Job 10:8-9; Psa 103:13-14
The human race was created on the same day as the animals: Gen 1:24-27
The human race was created from dust like the animals: Gen 2:7, 19
 

The human race is set apart from the rest of creation.
The human race is uniquely created in God's image: Ge 5:1-2; Ge 1:26-27; 9:6; Jas 3:9
The human race was given authority to take care of creation: Ge 1:26-28; Ge 2:15; 9:1-3; Ps 8:3-8; Heb 2:5-8
The human race is created with the power of choice: Ge 2:16-17; Ge 2:19
Human beings are created accountable to God for their actions: Mt 12:36; Eze 18:20; Jn 3:18-19; Ro 2:14-15; Rev 2:23
The human race is created dependant upon God: Mt 4:4; 2 Co 3:5; 2 Ch 20:12; Jer 10:23; Jas 4:13-15

 

Man, the Sinner

 

All the human race is sinful.
Ro 3:9-12; Ps 14:1-3; 53:1-3; Ge 6:5-13; Job 15:14-16; Ecc 7:20; Ro 1:18-32; Rev 18:1-5
 

The human race is estranged from God.
Isa 59:1-2; Ge 3:8-10, 22-24; Ps 5:4-5; Eph 2:12; 4:17-18; Col 1:21
 

The human race is spiritually callous, blind, enslaved and dead.
Eph 2:1-3; 4:17-19; Ro 1:21; 5:12-14; 6:16-20; 2 Co 4:4; 1 Jn 5:19
 

The human race is divided.
The human race is divided individual against individual: Gen 4:3-9; Ro 1:28-29
The human race is divided man against woman: Gen 3:8-12, 16; Pr 21:9
The human race is divided nation against nation: Ge 11:1-9; Mt 24:6-7
The human race is divided Jew against Gentile: Ac 10:27-28; Eph 2:11-12
The human race is divided rich against poor: Am 8:4-6; Jas 2:1-7
 

The human race has been weakened by sin.
The human race has become subject to death: Ge 2:16-17; Ro 6:23; Ro 5:12; 1 Co 15:21; Jas 1:15
Human beings have become weak and frail: Isa 40:6-7; Job 14:1-12; Ps 90:3-6; 103:13-16; Ecc 12:1-7; 1 Pe 1:24-25

 

Man, and His Negative Disposition to God

 

Rejection.
Isa 53:3; Lev 26:15-16; 1 Sa 8:7; Eze 5:6; 20:15-16; Jn 1:11
 

Lack of faith.
Mk 4:40 // Mt 8:26 // Lk 8:25; Mt 13:58 // Mk 6:6
 

Pride.
Dt 8:14; Lev 26:19; Lk 1:51; Jas 4:6; 1 Pe 5:5; Pr 3:34
 

Stubbornness.
Jer 5:23; Ps 78:8; Isa 48:4; Mk 3:5; 16:14; Ro 2:5
 

Rebellion.
Ps 78:40; Dt 1:26; Isa 1:2; Jer 2:29; Eze 2:3; Hos 7:13; Tit 1:10; Heb 3:16
 

Hostility.
Ro 8:7; Lev 26:21, 23-24, 27-28; Hos 9:7

 

The Problem of Sin: Nature of Sin

 

The basic nature of sin.
All sin is directed against God: Ps 51:4; Ge 13:13; Ex 10:16; Jdg 10:10; Ps 31:4; Lk 15:18
Sin is essentially a lack of faith in God: Ro 14:23; Heb 11:6
 

Descriptions of sin.
Corruption of God's good purposes: Dt 32:5; Ge 6:11-12; Dt 9:12; 31:29; Jdg 2:19
Doing evil in God's sight: Jn 3:19-20; Jdg 2:11; Ps 34:12-16; Pr 8:13; Isa 59:6-7; Mt 12:35 // Lk 6:45
Ungodliness: Jude 14-15; Isa 9:17; 32:6; 1 Ti 1:9
Rebellion against God's authority: Isa 30:9; Dt 9:7; 1 Sa 15:23; Ps 78:40, 56; Jer 3:13; Hos 7:13
The breaking or transgressing of God's laws: 1 Jn 3:4; 1 Sa 13:13-14; 1 Ch 10:13; Ne 9:29; Mic 1:5; 7:18; Ro 2:23; 4:15; 5:14-17; Jas 2:10-11
Straying from the right path: Isa 53:6; Ps 58:3; 95:10; 119:10, 21, 118
Incurring a debt: Mt 6:12; Mt 18:21-35
Falling short of a standard: Ro 3:23
Uncleanness: Ps 51:2; Isa 1:16; Ps 51:7; Heb 9:14
 

Kinds of sin.
Sins of omission: Jas 4:17; Mt 23:23 // Lk 11:42; Mt 25:45
Deliberate sins: Lk 12:47; Nu 15:30-31; Dt 1:42-43; 17:12; Ps 19:13; Isa 57:17; Ro 1:32
Unintentional sins: Lk 12:48; Lev 4:1-5; Nu 15:22-29; Dt 4:41-42; Ac 3:17; 1 Ti 1:13
Sin against the Holy Spirit: Mk 3:29-30 // Mt 12:31-32 // Lk 12:10; 1 Jn 5:16

 

The Problem of Sin: Causes of Sin

 

Sin as a result of the devil's activity. 
The devil's instigation of the first sin: 
Ge 3:13; Gen 3:1-6; 2 Co 11:3; Rev 12:9
The devil's role of tempter: 1 Th 3:5; Mt 4:1-11 // Mk 1:12-13 // Lk 4:1:13; Mt 6:3
The sin of angels: 2 Pe 2:4; Jude 6
 

Sin as a power in the world.
Sin's reign from the time of Adam: Ro 5:12; Gen 4:7; Jn 8:34; Rom 5:21; 6:16
Sin uses the law to provoke sinful desires: Ro 7:5; Ro 7:7-12; 1 Co 15:56
The world is under sin's dominion: 1 Jn 2:16; Lk 21:34; Tit 2:12
 

Sin is rooted in human nature.
The human heart is dominated by sin: Jer 17:9; Mt 15:19 // Mk 7:21-22; Ro 1:24; Heb 3:12
Human nature is fundamentally opposed to God: Ro 8:5-8; Ro 7:14-25; Gal 5:17-21; Eph 2:3; 2 Pe 2:10, 18
 

The act of sinning.
Sin results from giving into evil desires: Jas 1:14-15; Ro 13:13-14; Jas 4:1; Jude 16
Sin results from the human desire to be like God: Gen 3:5; Isa 14:12-14; Eze 28:2
Sin results when the body is placed at sin's disposal: Ro 6:13; Mt 5:29-30; 18:8-9 // Mk 9:43-47
Sin results from the influence of others: 1 Co 15:33; Ex 23:33; 1 Ki 11:3; Pr 1:10; 22:24-25
The seriousness of leading others into sin: Mk 9:42 // Mt 18:6 // Lk 17:1-2; 1 Co 8:9-13

 

The Problem of Sin: Universality of Sin

 

Adam, the cause of universal sin.
Ro 5:19; Ge 3:1-24; Ro 5:12; 1 Co 15:22
 

The universe is in subjection to sin.
Gal 3:22; Ro 5:21; 11:32
 

Sin is inherent in human nature.
Sinfulness from birth: Ps 51:5; Job 25:4; Ps 58:3
The sinful heart: Ge 6:5; Ge 8:21; Ecc 9:3; Jer 17:9; Mt 15:19 // Mk 7:21
The sinful nature: Eph 2:3; Ro 8:6-8; Gal 5:19-21
 

The universality of sin.
No one is righteous: Ro 3:9-19; Ps 5:9; 10:7; 14:1-3 // Ps 53:1-3; Ps 36:1; 140:3; Isa 59:7-8
All have sinned: Ro 3:23; Ge 6:11-12; 1 Ki 8:46 // 2 Ch 6:36; Ecc 7:20; Isa 53:6; Ro 1:18-32; Jas 3:2
Everyone is sinful in God's sight: 1 Jn 1:8; Ps 130:3; 143:2; Pr 20:9; Isa 64:6-7; Mt 19:17 // Mk 10:18 // Lk 18:19; 1 Jn 1:10
 

Some characters in Scripture are described as being blameless in comparison with their contemporaries.
Ge 5:24; Ge 6:9; 1 Ki 15:5
 

Jesus Christ alone is sinless.
Heb 4:15; 1 Pe 2:22; Isa 53:9; Lk 23:47; 2 Co 5:21; Heb 7:26; 1 Jn 3:5

 

The Problem of Sin: Effects of Sin
 

The effects of sin on individuals.
Lack of peace of mind: Isa 57:20-21; Job 15:20-35; Ps 38:5-8; Pr 13:15-22; La 1:20-21
Bondage to a continuing habit of sin: Jn 8:34; Pr 5:22; Ro 6:16; 2 Ti 2:16
Physical death: 1 Co 15:56; Ge 2:17; 3:19; Pr 21:16; Ro 5:12-14; 6:21-23; 1 Co 15:22; Jas 1:15
The sinful life is equivalent to death: Eph 2:1; Ro 7:9, 13; 8:10; Col 2:13
 

The effects of sin on the sinner before God.
Uncleanness: Isa 64:6; Ps 106:39; Isa 6:5; Jer 2:22; La 1:8; Mt 15:18-20 // Mk 7:20-23
Guilt: Ezr 9:6; Ge 3:10; Ps 38:3-4; 44:15; Isa 59:12-13; Jer 3:25; 14:20
Separation from God: Isa 59:2; Dt 31:18; Isa 1:15; 64:7; Eze 8:6; Hos 5:6; Mic 3:4; Eph 2:12
 

The effects of sin on Israel.
Pr 14:34; Jos 7:1-16; 1 Ki 8:33-40; Isa 1:4-9; Ro 1:21-32
 

The effects of sin on the world.
The ground cursed: Ge 3:17-18; Jer 12:13; Ro 8:20-22
The land polluted: Lev 18:25; Ge 4:10-12; Nu 35:33-34; Ps 106:38; Isa 24:4-6; Jer 3:1

 

The Problem of Sin: God's Character and Sin
 

God's character and sin.
God himself is perfect: Hab 1:13; 1 Jn 1:5; Dt 32:4; Jos 24:19; Ps 97:2; Isa 6:3
Jesus Christ is sinless: 1 Pe 2:22; Isa 53:9; 2 Co 5:21; Heb 1:9; 7:26-27; 1 Jn 3:5
God's people are to be holy: 1 Pe 1:15-16; Lev 11:44, 45; 19:2; 20:7; Mt 5:48; 1 Th 4:7; 1 Jn 3:3

God's attitude to sin.
God knows all sin: Jer 16:17; Job 10:14; Ps 139:1-4; Jer 2:22; Hos 7:2; Am 5:12; Heb 4:13
God grieves over sin: Ge 6:6; Isa 63:10; Eph 4:30
God hates sin: Ps 11:5; Dt 25:16; 2 Sa 11:27; Ps 5:5; Pr 6:16-19; Zec 8:17; Lk 16:15
Sin provokes God's anger: Ro 1:18; 2 Ch 36:16; Eze 20:8; Am 1:3; Jn 3:36; Eph 5:5-6; Col 3:5-6
God is also merciful and gracious: Ex 34:6-7; Ne 9:17, 31; Ps 78:38; 103:8-14; La 3:22-23; Mic 7:18-19; Ro 11:32
God's patience with sinners: 2 Pe 3:9; Ro 2:4, 9:22; 1 Ti 1:16
 

Jesus Christ is the supreme revelation of God's love for sinners.
Jesus Christ's ministry of forgiveness: 1 Ti 1:15; Mt 9:2 // Mk 2:5 // Lk 5:20-21; Lk 7:36-50; 15:1-10; 19:5-10; Jn 8:1-11
God's love shown in Jesus Christ's death: Ro 5:8; Jn 3:16-17; Eph 2:4; 1 Pe 3:18; 1 Jn 4:9-10
The risen Christ gives grace to sinful people: 1 Jn 2:1; Ro 8:34; Heb 2:17-18; 4:15-5:2

 

The Problem of Sin: God's Judgment on Sin
 

God's judgment on sin.
God is the judge of sin: Isa 26:21; Ps 99:8; Isa 13:11; Am 3:14; Zep 1:12; 1 Th 4:6
God's Judgement is certain: Ro 2:12; Ps 37:38; Pr 11:21; Heb 9:27
God's judgement is in proportion to the seriousness of the sin: Jer 21:14; Dt 25:2; Isa 59:18; Mt 7:1-5; Lk 12:47-48; Ro 2:5-6
God's judgement under the Sinaitic covenant: Ex 20:5 //Dt 5:9; Lev 26:14-39; Dt 28:15-68; Jer 31:29-30; Eze 18:1-32
John the Baptist and Jesus Christ warn of Judgement: Mt 3:10 // Lk 3:9; Mt 3:12; 7:19; 12:36-37; Mk 9:42-49
 

Ways in which God judges sin.
God causes sin to bring evil to the sinner: 2 Ch 6:23; Dt 19:19; Est 7:10; Ps 7:15-16; Isa 30:13
God abandons people: Isa 64:7; Dt 31:17-18; Jos 7:11-12; La 4:16; Eze 39:23-24
Unrepentant sinners to be expelled from the church: Mt 18:17; 1 Co 5:1-13
God exercises judgement through a country's legal system: 1 Pe 2:14; Ro 13:3-4
Untimely death is God's judgment on all sin: Ge 2:17; Lev 20:1-17; 1 Ch 10:13; Pr 11:19; Ro 1:32; 1 Co 11:29-30
Sinners are excluded from the kingdom of God: Rev 22:15; 1 Co 6:9-10; Gal 5:9-21; Rev 21:27
 

Occasions of God's judgment on sin.
OT examples: Gen 3:16-24; Ge 6:1-7:24; Ge 18:20-19:29; Dt 9:1-5; 2 Ki 17:7-23; 24:10-20
The destruction of Jerusalem: Lk 11:47-51; 13:34-35
God's final judgment of the world: Rev 21:8; Isa 66:24; Mt 25:31-46; 2 Th 1:8-9; 2 Pe 3:7; Jude 7

 

God's Remedy for Sin: Atonement in the OT
 

Atonement for sins in the OT was through the shedding of blood. 
Lev 17:11
 

Kinds of sin offering in the OT.
The sin offering was for unintentional sins: Lev 4:1-5:13; Nu 15:22-31
The guilt offering was for unintentional sins, where restitution was required: Lev 5:14-6:7; Nu 5:5-10
The annual Day of Atonement cleansed the nation of sin: Lev 16:1-34; Ex 30:11-16; Lev 23:26-32; Heb 9:7
The priests made atonement on occasions of deliberate national sin: Nu 16:46-48; Nu 25:13

 

God's Remedy for Sin: Atonement, Repentance, and Obedience
 

Worshipers recognize the needs for repentance and obedience.
Pr 21:3; Ps 40:6-8; 51:16-17
 

The prophets declared the need for obedience.
1 Sa 15:22; Isa 1:11-17; Jer 7:21-23; Hos 6:6; Mic 6:6-8
 

The prophets warned of judgment to bring people to repentance.
2 Ki 17:13; Isa 31:6-7; Jer 4:1-4; 35:15; Eze 3:16-19; Jnh 3:4-10

 

God's Remedy for Sin: The Death of Jesus
 

Jesus Christ died on behalf of sinful humanity. 
Ro 5:6; Mt 26:26-28; Jn 10:11; 15:13; Gal 2:20
 

The early church proclaimed that Christ died for the sins of others.
1 Co 15:3; Ro 4:25; Gal 1:4; 1 Pe 3:18
 

Jesus bore sin on the cross.
2 Co 5:21; Isa 53:10-12; Heb 9:28; 1 Pe 2:24
 

Jesus Christ has redeemed people by taking their place.
Mt 20:28 // Mk 10:45; Gal 3:13; 1 Ti 2:6; Tit 2:14
 

Jesus Christ's death is sacrificial.
Ro 3:25; Ro 8:3; 1 Co 5:7; Eph 5:2; Heb 7:27; 10:5-13; 1 Jn 2:2; 4:10
 

The shedding of Jesus Christ's blood brings forgiveness.
1 Jn 1:7; Jn 1:29; Eph 1:7; Heb 9:12-22; 13:12; 1 Pe 1:18-19; Rev 7:14

 

God's Remedy for Sin: God's Deliverance from Sin
 

God's removal of sin.
Atonement for sin: Isa 6:7; Ex 32:30; Lev 4:27-31; Pr 16:6; Ro 3:25; Heb 2:17
Forgiveness of sin: Mic 7:18; Ac 13:38; 1 Ki 8:35-36; 2 Ch 30:18-20; Ps 103:2-3; Isa 33:24; 55:7; Joel 3:21; Mt 26:27-28; Lk 24:46-47; Eph 1:7; 1 Jn 1:9
Cancelation of a debt: Mt 6:12; Mt 18:21-35; Lk 7:41-50
A covering over of sin: 1 Pe 4:8; Ps 32:1; 85:2; Jas 5:20
The taking away of sin: Ps 103:12; 2 Sa 12:13; Isa 6:6-7; Zec 3:4; Jn 1:29; Heb 9:28; 1 Jn 3:5
Remembering sin no more: Isa 43:25; Ps 25:7; Jer 31:33-34; 2 Co 5:19
 

God's deliverance for the sinner.
The salvation of the sinner: 1 Ti 1:15; Ps 28:8-9; Mt 1:21; Lk 19:9-10; Jn 3:17; Heb 7:25
The image of healing: Lk 5:31-32 // Mt 9:12 // Mk 2:17; 2 Ch 7:14; Isa 53:5; 57:18-19; Hos 14:4; 1 Pe 2:24
The image of cleansing: Ps 51:2; Lev 16:30; Eze 36:25; Jn 13:1-11; Ac 22:16; Heb 10:22; 1 Jn 1:9
Redemption by God: Ps 130:8; Isa 44:22; Tit 2:14; 1 Pe 1:18-19
Justification before God: Gal 2:16; Isa 53:11; Ro 3:24-26; 4:5, 25; 5:16-19; 8:33
Freedom from condemnation: Ro 8:1; Jn 3:18; 8:3-11; Ro 8:34
Peace with God: Ro 5:1; Isa 53:5; Lk 2:14; Eph 2:17
Reconciliation with God: 2 Co 5:18; Ro 5:9-11; Col 1:19-20
Sanctification to God: Heb 10:10; 1 Co 6:11; Eph 5:25-26; Col 1:22
Freedom from sin and the sinful nature: Ro 7:24; 1 Pe 2:24; Ro 6:1-18; 8:1-9; Gal 5:24
A transition from death to life: Col 2:13; Lk 15:22-24; Eph 2:4-5
Receiving eternal life: Ro 6:23; Jn 3:16, 36; 5:24

 

Accepting Forgiveness of Sin
 

Conviction

La 1:20; Jn 16:8-9; 1 Ki 8:38-40; Isa 6:5; Eze 33:10-11; Ac 16:29

 

Faith

Ac 16:31; Mk 1:14-15; Jn 3:36; 5:24; Ac 13:38-39; 16:25-34; Ro 3:22-26; 10:8-10; Eph 2:8

 

Repentance

Turning toward God: Ac 3:19; 2 Ch 6:36-39; Isa 55:7; Eze 18:21; Mt 3:1-2 // Mk 1:4 // Lk 3:2; Ac 17:30; 2 Co 7:10; 1 Th 1:9
Turning away from sin: Jn 8:11; Jer 4:3-4; Lk 19:1-10; Jn 5:14; Ro 6:11-14; 1 Pe 2:11

 

Baptism

Ac 22:16; Mt 28:18-20 // Mk 16:15-16; Jn 3:3-5; Mk 1:4-5 // Mt 3:1-6 // Lk 3:2-6; Ac 2:38; 8:36; Ro 6:3-4; 1 Co 12:13; Gal 3:26-27; Eph 5:25-27; Col 2:11-13; Tit 3:4-6; 1 Pe 3:21

 

Confession

Pr 28:13; 1 Jn 1:9; Lev 16:20-22; 26:40-42; 2 Sa 12:13; Ps 32:3-5; La 3:40; Lk 15:17-20; Ac 19:18

 

Restitution

Lk 19:8; Lev 6:1-7; Nu 5:6-8; Pr 6:30-31; Eze12-16

 

Forgiving Others

Lk 11:4 // Mt 6:12; Mt 6:14-15; 18:21-35; Mk 11:25; Eph 4:32; Col 3:13

 

Avoidance of Sin
 

God's people are to resist sin.
1 Pe 2:11; Ps 97:10; Pr 4:23-27; 1 Co 15:34; Eph 4:25-5:20; Jas 1:21
 

The Christian life is a constant struggle against sin.
Heb 3:13; Ac 20:28; Ro 7:14-25; Eph 6:10-18; 1 Pe 5:8-9
 

God helps his people to resist sin.
Release from sin through Jesus Christ's death: 1 Pe 2:24; Ro 6:1-7; Gal 2:20; 5:24; Col 2:11-12
The avoidance of sin through new life in Jesus Christ: 1 Jn 3:9; 2 Co 5:17; 1 Pe 1:23; 1 Jn 3:6; 5:18
 

Believers co-operate with Jesus Christ to avoid sin.
Php 2:12-13
Believers are to put to death what is sinful in them: Col 3:5; Ro 6:11-14; 8:13
Believers are to exchange sinful for righteous behavior: Ro 13:12-14; Eph 4:22-24; Col 3:7-10; 1 Ti 6:11; 2 Ti 2:22
Believers are to allow the Spirit to inform and direct their conduct: Ro 12:2; Ro 8:5-8; Gal 5:16-25
 

Practical steps for overcoming sin and temptation.
Meditation on Scripture: Ps 119:11; Ps 18:22-23; Mt 4:1-11 // Lk 4:1-13; 2 Ti 3:16-17
Prayerful dependence upon God: Mt 6:13 // Lk 11:4; Ps 19:13; Mt 26:41; 1 Co 10:13; Heb 4:15-16
Active seeking of the good: Ro 6:19; Ps 34:14; Isa 1:16-17; Am 5:14-15; 1 Th 5:22; 3 Jn 11
 

Incentives for avoiding sin.
The fear of God: Pr 16:6; Ex 20:20; Pr 3:7; 8:13
The holiness of God: 1 Pe 1:15-16; Lev 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7; 1 Co 6:18-20; 1 Th 4:7
The expectation of Jesus Christ's return: 1 Pe 4:7; 2 Co 5:9-10; 1 Th 5:4-6; 2 Pe 3:10-14
A consideration of the consequences of sin: Gal 6:7-8; Mk 9:42-48; Ro 6:21-23; Heb 6:7-8; 10:26-31
The need to be a good witness to unbelievers: 1 Pe 2:15; 1 Pe 3:1-2, 15-6
 

The role of others in avoiding sin.
Bad company is to be avoided: 1 Co 15:33; Dt 7:1-4; Ps 1:1; Pr 1:10; 1 Co 5:1-13
A good example is to be followed: 1 Co 11:1; Php 3:17; 4:9; Heb 12:1-3; 1 Pe 4:1-3
Believers are to support one another: Jas 5:19-20; Mt 18:15-17; Gal 6:1-2; 1 Ti 5:20; Heb 3:12

 

Physical Address

 

103 Bloor Street

Fredericton, New Brunswick

E3B 2K4

Mailing Address

 

PO Box 671, Station A

Fredericton, New Brunswick

E3B 2K4

Contact Information

 

Phone:  (506) 472-0071

contact@frederictonchristianchurch.com